Today the societies are driven by information and knowledge. We cannot escape the ubiquity of media, the diverse forms of information and communication technologies, or their impact on our personal, economic, political, and social lives. Thus, new kinds of competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes) are required if people are to effectively participate and succeed throughout their lives in information societies.
Nowadays, the rapid growth in information and development of information communication technologies (ICT) change the media landscape and play a crucial role in lives of individuals and communities. People should obtain a critical set of competencies to be able to seek, critically evaluate and create new information. Thus, skills and abilities to read, analyze, evaluate, and produce communication in different forms largely determine our choices.
Media literacy is defined in Media and Information Literacy: Curriculum for Teachers(UNESCO, 2012) as “informed and critical understanding of media, the techniques they employ and their effects”, whereas information literacy “refers to the ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, effectively use and communicate information in its various formats” (Media and Information Literacy: Curriculum for Teachers, UNESCO, 2012). Moreover, information literacy was recognized as a basic human right and a “prerequisite for participating effectively in the Information Society” (UNESCO Prague Declaration, 2003). Media and information literacy “refers to the essential competences that allow citizens to engage with media and other information providers effectively and develop critical thinking and life-long learning skills for socializing and becoming active citizens” (Pedagogies of Media and Information Literacies, UNESCO, 2012).